From November 2019 to January 2021, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported nine cases of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) infections, with no link to international travel. Annually in the USA, there are approximately 350 diagnosed cases of typhoid fever.
Advice for travellers
Typhoid is an illness caused by infection with the bacteria S. typhi, and is spread by consuming food and drink that has been contaminated with human faeces or urine (faecal-oral route). As with all illnesses spread by the faecal-oral route, travellers are advised that the following food and water precautions should be taken:
- Avoid consumption of potentially contaminated drinks.
- Ensure food is uncontaminated and cooked thoroughly.
- Practice personal hygiene when eating and drinking, such as washing hands prior to eating and using clean plates, cups and utensils.
When to consider vaccination
Typhoid vaccination recommendations are country-specific and are available on the individual country pages on the TRAVAX (for health professionals) and fitfortravel (for the general public) websites.
Further information and advice is available on the TRAVAX (for health professionals) and fitfortravel (for the general public) websites.
Source: TRAVAX, 4 March 2021