The consumption of food or water contaminated with faeces from infected animals can cause infection too. Swimming in contaminated water, such as lochs or rivers, may also cause infection.
For all infection prevention and control guidance visit the A-Z pathogens section of the National Infection and Prevention Control Manual.
Read more in the following scientific papers:
Data and surveillance
View our latest giardia surveillance report.
* 2020 data remains provisional
Data source: Public Health Scotland