The bacteria are able to live in the gastrointestinal tract of a range of animals including:
Risk factors for Campylobacter infection include eating:
- raw or undercooked meat
- unpasteurised milk
- untreated water
Other risk factors for infection including:
- contact with pets that have diarrhoea
- contact with livestock
Information about the symptoms and managing Campylobacter infection is available on the NHS inform website.
Visit the Food Standards Scotland website for guidance on the safe handling of food.
For all infection prevention and control guidance visit the A-Z pathogens section of the National Infection and Prevention Control Manual.
Read more in the following scientific papers:
- Human campylobacteriosis in Scotland: seasonality, regional trends and bursts of infection
- Geographic determinants of reported human Campylobacter infections in Scotland
- Putative household outbreaks of campylobacteriosis typically comprise single MLST genotypes
- Operationalising factors that explain the emergence of infectious diseases: a case study of the human campylobacteriosis epidemic
- Elucidating the aetiology of human Campylobacter coli infections
- Identifying the seasonal origins of human campylobacteriosis
Data and surveillance
Read our latest campylobacter surveillance report.
View annual totals for campylobacter in the ten-year gastrointestinal and zoonoses data tables.